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Volume 7 Number 5 


Editorial John Collier 1 

To Toe Men And Women Of The Indian Service John Collier 8 

Dr. Mekeel Leaves Service To Head Laboratory 

of Anthropology , . . 9 

Across Bering Strait On The Ice: New Documenta- 
tion On Tne Siberian Origin Of The American 

Indian John P. Harrington 10 

John Pros t, Well-Known Crow Clergyman, Dies 14 

Indian Administration Developments Shown In 1937 

Report, Now Available * 15 

Acoma Sheep Dip, United Pueblos, New Mexico Ten Broeck Williamson ... 18 

Cover Pho tograph 21 

A Message Prom Fort Peck, Montana Martin Mi tchell 22 

Indian Contribution Shown At Oklahoma Polk 

Festival Program 23 

Por t McDermi tt Makes Hay J. E . Whi te 24 

A Word About For t McDermi tt Women 27 

Indian Murals In Anadarko's Federal Building 

Dedicated 27 

Land Trades Being Effected For Economy and 

Better Administration 28 

New Hospital At Western Shoshone Agency '. 29 

Wild Life On Tae Crow Reservation Robert Yellowtail 30 

The Use Of Sand And Gravel Plants In CCC-ID Work. George Biiby 31 

Yankton Women ' s Club Makes Fine Record 34 

CCC - ID Training - Some Specific 

Results 35 

4-H Clubs Flourish At Pima Elisabeth Hart 36 

Training Indians On The Job At Port Apache, 

Arizona Erik W. Allstrom 37 

Reading Material For Indian CCC Camps In The 

Southwe st Claude C. Cornwall 38 

Trade-Marks Will Protect Makers And Buyers Of 

Navajo Rugs 39 

Consti tution And Charter News 39 

Nine Years Of Growth Henrietta Z. Burton 40 

Notes From Weekly CCC - ID Reports 41 





















































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A Mefs SkS^^for linens 
cared $rrae. mdietre Scrv/file. 


The importance of wise planning in the field of govern- 
ment - the overwhelming importance - is as yet appreciated hy few 

In the competitive business field, there take place many 
failures for every success. Planning, an essential element of suc- 
cess, is insured through the competitive principle. Die non-plenner 
or bad planner is simply driven to the wall; the planner, who plans 
wisely, holds the field. 

Now, the most important planning of all is planning by 
government. Failure to plan by government, or wrong planning, has 
damaging effects reaching through and through the affairs of the 
people. Hfcat is true on an Indian reservation; true in the total 
nation. And the competitive principle can not, in government 
planning, be relied upon as it can be in private business planning. 

Absence of plan, or mistake of plan, practically holds 
the field -unchallenged, where it is government planning. A bad 
plan may continue to dominate the situation ye8xs, even lifetimes, 
after its badness has become evident. This, because whatever plan, 
good or bad, is adopted by government, thereafter is promptly but- 
tressed by the special interests which it creates. 

The bad plan, for example, of public domain homesteading 
opera.ted consecutively across nearly three generations, long after 
its economic and social unf easibility had become apparent. It 
operated until stopped in 1934. The end result ha,s been the dust 

Wrong planning in the matter of control of floods had 
the effect of obscuring for at least one full generation the facets 
of soil erosion which have loomed into public consciousness in the 
last four years. Hundreds of millions of dollars were spent build- 
ing levees down-river, while neither expenditure nor public control 
of use saved the "little waters" or the watershed soils. 

Indian Service history is "strewn with the corpses" of bad 
yet persevering plans. Land allotment is the best known of these. 
But look at the Indian irrigation system as it was a few years ago. 
More than fifty million dollars had been sunk in big irrigation 
projects, all but a few of which were practically insolvent. Under 
these projects, due to heavy costs, Indians were leasing, not using, 
their lands, as a general fact. Meantime, the innumerable inexpen- 

sive, self-maintaining subsistence irrigation projects had "been 
neglected. Only now is Indian Service "beginning to liquidate this 
discouraging heritage, and to press its irrigation work toward di- 
rect, Indian subsistence, use. 

Other cases, known to all stiaients of the Indian record, 
are the predominant reliance on boarding schools in years gone by; 
the oblivion in earlier years toward Indian community organization, 
traditional or modern; the concentration, in the health field, up- 
on hospitalization as over against Public Health work. 

There grew up, as it were, a big repertory of alternate 
defective plans, and Indian administration ricocheted from one to 
another, with baffling discontinuity of policy and with little or 
nothing certain except that the last estate would be no better than 
the first. 

And Indian Service has been no special case. A parallel 
tale might be told of government almost in its entirety. 

Turning from the negative view to the positive one, how 
quickly and increasingly productive is wise, factual planning by 
government! Just staying within the Indian field: think of the 
swift productiveness of the Indian Reorganization Act as viewed 
from region to region of Indian country. Observe the steady decline 
of the Indian death rate, since planned health service got into ac- 
tion hardly more than ten years ago. Look at the instantaneous 
and growing productiveness of planned water development, planned 

land use and planned land rehabilitation, since factual planning 
began to be introduced at the beginning of Indian Emergency Con- 
servation Work, in 1933. 

As yet, in Indian Service as in government at large, 
factually informed planning is only at its dawn. What needs to be 
recognized, is the paramount importance of planning. This paramount 
task does not belong to the top executives alone, or to the statis- 
tical division alone. In Indian Service as in the general common- 
wealth, the whole employed personnel and the whole citizenship are 
needed as partners in the planning. 

In Indian Service, that planning is worth most, which is 
a staff operation within a local jurisdiction; and with the Indians, 
as organized bodies, taking part from beginning to end. 

In earlier issues, such planning and, thereafter, the ex- 
ecution of such plans, is given the name of the "area project meth- 
od" (see "Indians At Work" July 1936 "Reorganization Number'J)* 

The President's Reorganization Committee, in its report 
sent to Congress by the President January 12, last, lays a greatly 
needed emphasis on a phase of thought and planning that must lie 
back of social and economic planning. This prerequisite of all suc- 
cessful planning is personnel planning . 

The Committee proposes that a positive personnel planning 
and positive personnel work shall be undertaken by the government 
as a whole and by all its departments. 

Such positive personnel planning and work means attracting 
ability into government service; training that ability, before and 
after it is employed; recording the achievements of personnel, in 
such manner that the existence of needed talent, wherever it may be 
found in the government, can be known to the promoting officer. 
Positive personnel planning merges with administrative planning, be- 
cause according to the demands that are placed upon personnel will 
the product of personnel be, in the long run. Bad administrative 
organization defeats personnel, just as surely as bad personnel can 
defeat good organization. 

In this field of personnel planning lie some of the great 
discoveries of the years ahead. At present, positive personnel work 
looks out into a twilight world. Discoveries are waiting to be 
made. These discoveries, when made, and when made effective in 
practice, will set free unguessed endowments of energy and of spe- 
cific ability - endowments unused and unsuspected, which are the 
present possession of multitudes of government employees. 

An Interdepartmental Committee, appointed by the Secre- 
taries of Interior and Agriculture and the Civil Service Commission, 
is now working upon this problem which lies over in the twilight - 
positive personnel planning. 

In the Southwest area, using funds supplied by the Rocke- 
feller Foundation, an esperiment or demonstration has just now been 
got under way, in the field of recruitment, in-service training, 

and tlie formulation of new types of record and of more productive 
types of examination for administrative posts in Indian Service 
and kindred services. 

Many other departments are exploring and experimenting 
in this field of positive personnel work. But as yet, only the 
glimmering "beginnings have "been made. 

Wise planning "by government will yield more fruit than 
did the voyage of Columbus. 

Dana Johnson is dead - at 58 years, from heart failure, on 
December eighth. How long the span since 1922, when month after 
month The New Mexican , which he edited, blazed wrath, irony, humor, 
scorn against the Bursum Indian bill and the designs of Albert B. 
Fall. Then the intervening years, when The New Mexican characterized 
as a public enemy (even, as the event proved, one to be hung in effigy, 
and burnt) the writer of this memorial note. Then the succeeding 
years, when Bronson Cutting, Senator, was helping to find a way 
to unit these warring elements along the Rio Grande. And the final 
years, when Dana Johnson unfailingly, and always with a whip of wit 
and a voice containing the rolling of drums, waged battle against the 
New Deal in general but for the New Deal's Indian program - for the 
Pueblos, the Navajo s. 

Only two and a half years ago, we stood near together in 
a strangely remote and alien New York church, looking at the bier 

of that king of men - that brother of men - Bronson Cutting. 

Already nearly all of that past is 

"Folded like a scroll within the tomh, 
Unread forever. " 

But do not the purposes live on? 

All hut the tiniest part of the infinite past (near and 
remote past) is thus "folded like a scroll within the tomh." Thus 
certainly, nearly every reader of this memorial, with the writer of 
it, will he, in a mere hreath of years, ten years or twenty years. 

But do not the purposes live on7 

And do not hrave wills, hrave spirits live on - though 
we cannot know how - in the purposes? 


Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


We axe entering upon a new year. 

Nearly five years have passed since the present Adminis- 
tration came in. It is three and one-half years since the adoption 
of the Indian Reorganization Act. Looking hack and calculating our 
accomplishments in terms of our ambitions and hopes, we are dismayed 
that we have not accomplished more. If we measure our progress, 
however, against the intricate immensity of the task of Indian ad- 
ministration, I think that we can regard what we have done with 
satisfaction. A third of a million people cannot in a few months 
recapture a destiny. Government cannot, in a few months - or a few 
years - supply these people with the natural resources and the tools 
of a livelihood which they reauire. But in hoth these directions, 
through the Indian Reorganization Act, much has "been done. A con- 
siderable measure of self-government, and a teeming measure of self- 
confidence and self-respect, have been recaptured by the Indian 
people. In physical assets, the Indians have gained by nearly three 
million acres. Taeir lands, their homes, and their industries have 
been improved through the wise expenditure of a great deal of emer- 
gency money. 

But since this is essentially a message to Indian Service 
employees, I want to tell them that one of the most gratifying devel- 
opments of all has been the constantly growing attitude of coopera- 
tion and accommodation on their part. Once in a while one finds an 
employee who cannot be jogged out of the old rut, but the great 
majority have welcomed and supported the new order. 

I do not need to remind any employee that this new order 
calls for greater physical effort, much more understanding, much 
more wisdom than used to be required of a man or woman in the Indian 
Service. It is easy to dictate; it is difficult to guide. The path 
of a czar is brutally clear; the course of a counselor is painful 
and searching. We are translating a system of administration by 
absolutism into one of democracy; and among all methods of govern- 
ment, democracy is most exacting in its demands upon those in author- 

I have noticed very often that where an Indian community 
is making noteworthy progress, there is found living in the commun- 
ity some especially devoted employee. It may be a man; often it is 
a woman. It may be a school teacher or an Indian farmer. As a rule, 

the title doesn't mean much. The school teacher advises about 
agriculture; the farmer teaches a class of boys to get along a lit- 
tle better in their environment. Both of thea are called on to 
act in every capacity from family counselor to mechanic, in every 
field from dairying to domestic science. They know the Indian as 
a person, not as a problem. 

These devoted people who live out in the communities are 
the backbone of the Indian Service. Often their environment is 
hard and depressing. They live far from comforts and companionship, 
it is not difficult for them to think sometimes that they are for- 
gotten. I want this message to go to these people, especially - 
to let them know that, far from being forgotten, they are remembered 
constantly with gratitude and appreciation. 

We have before us another twelve months. Here in Washing- 
ton we are apt to measure our progress by fiscal periods, by the 
weeks when appropriations committee hearings are on, or the times 
when Budget estimates must be submitted. In the field, the inclina- 
tion is to use a calendar marked off with the dates for lease pay- 
ments, or for reports to be submitted to Washington, or for reserva- 
tion budgets to be got up. Let us all remember, both in Washington 
and in the field, that the only true measure is that fourth dimen- 
sional one - of spiritual satisfaction in a worth-while job well 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


Dr. H. Scudder Mekeel, who has been Field Representative 
of the Commissioner and in charge of the applied anthropology unit 
of the Indian Service has resigned to become director of the Labor- 
atory of Anthropology in Santa Fe. He succeeds Dr. Kenneth M. 
Chapman, who had expressed a desire to retire from administration 
in order to continue his research work. 


By John P. Harrington - Smithsonian Institution 

Throughout a vast area the Old World and the New look at 
each other face to face. It is that bleak and little known region, 
shown on the map below, which constitutes the extreme northeastern 
corner of Siberia and the northwestern corner of North America. There, 
from heights of land, one may see across the water to the other 
side. Prom east Siberia, America must have appeared to its first 
discoverers much as the great island of Sakhalin, further south 
on the same Siberian Coast, looked - as a great off-lying island. 

•\ / 



^ *^j 







Less Than 54 Miles Separates Siberia And Alaska 

The first discoverers: From where did they come? Ever 
since the begiming of tne seventeenth century it has been aotoarent 
to students of the races and languages of man that the first in- 
habitants of America, the so-called Indians, are related genetically, 
historically and geographically to the great race of mankind known 
to the Russians for centuries under the name of Tatarin , a word 
which has been taken into English as "Tartar." This Tartar race 


inhabited East Siberia for milleniums - still inhabits it - and 
during all these milleniums has, so far as is known, been in pos- 
session of boats for navigating rivers and the sea, sleds, native 
dogs, reindeer and other means of transportation. Even the very 
word for man's boat, kayak , in use by the present Eskimo, occurs 
today in various East Siberian languages. 

There are in reality two problems: First, the general 
Siberian origin of the American Indian; and second, the details of 
how and when he came into America. The first of these problems has 
never encountered any opposition from thinking scientists. Brerewood, 
writing in England several years before the Pilgram Fathers made 
their memorable voyage to the New England Coast, published his 
views that the American Indian belonged to the Tartar race, which 
views are so plausibile and convincing that they have simply been 
"rehashed" and elaborated by subsequent scientists. But when we 
come to the details of the immigration, it is another matter. There 
is the rub. These details remain even at the present day unproved. 

Land- Bridge Migration Doubtful 

No scientist knows, after any amount of study of modern 
geology, including the tracing of the first coming of the Sequoia 
gigantea (Giant Redwood) and related species of trees into Ajnerica, 
whether there was a land- bridge across the present Bering Sea be- 
tween East Cape Siberia and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, at the 
time of the first immigration of man into America. The Bering Sea 
at this point is at present shallow and two islands, Big Diomede and 
Little Diomede, stand midway like stepping stones in a stream in the 
midst of the fifty-four mile wide Strait. Geologists agree that in 
the miocene era, millions of years before the coming of man into 
America, there was such a land connection, but whether this connec- 
tion persisted or was renewed at the time of the penetration of man 
to the east is a big question-mark unsolved by modern geological 
studies. It seems on the whole very doubtful that man immigrated 
into America across a land-bridge. 

Two Other Possibilities : Boats ; Or The Ice 

Nor would have such a land-bridge have been necessary. 
There are two other means by which man, in his paleo-Siberian state 
of some thirty or forty thousand years ago, may easily and plausibly 
have entered America. 

One of these means was his possession of boats. The peo- 
ple of Eskimo speech who have during the last few centuries held 


"both sides of the Bering Strait are in possession of skin boats; al- 
so open dugout "boats, made by hollowing out a log, are known to the 
tribes further down the Siberian Coast and further down the American 
Coast and may have been the type of boat used by the original cross- 
ers of the Strait, instead of the skin boat. 

The other means of coming to the New World was by cross- 
ing on the ice. In the present geological age the Strait never 
freezes over solidly but is, except in mid-summer, more or less ir- 
regularly filled with floating blocks of ice, carried by well-known 
currents and often practically contiguous. What the ice conditions 
were in the Bering Strait during the ice age, from which the present 
geological age is an emergence, are not known. But the interesting 
point is, and it is an all-inportant one, that it is possible for a 
man - even if ice conditions were no more favorable during the im- 
migration period than they are now - to cross, afoot or with dog- 
sled, from East Cape Siberia to the Alaskan shores, without the use 
of boats. 

It was, therefore, most gratifying to this writer to re- 
ceive recently the unique, and one might almost say historical, 
letter from Mr. Max Gottschalk, of Nome, Alaska, which is published 
here for the first time. It shows that a man has in recent times 
accomplished the feat of crossing - as it is very likely th* primi- 
tive Indians crossed - without the use of a boat. 

I want to point out that Mr. Gottschalk 1 s success in 
crossing ice which was at points almost paper-thin, was due in part 
to his use of the dog-sled. There is a principle known to skaters 
as well as to physicists that in proportion to the rapidity with 
which a body moves, so much less is the dead weight exerted on the 
supporting substance. The earliest Indians, doubtless possessing 
the dog-sLed, may have crossed by this means also, or they may have 
crossed on foot. It is an interesting fact to note that prevailing 
currents carried Gottschalk with the floe far afield, to Shishmaref , 
some seventy miles to the northeast, up coast, of his contemplated 

I might say that the letter from Mr. Gottschalk - who is 
not what he himself would call an educated man - has seemed to me 
to be a masterful example of English writing, giving briefly and 
simply the story of his epic accomplishment. 


East Cape 


L.ttl e 

Captain Gottschalk's Journey 

Nome, Alaska. 

"Dr. John P. Harrington 

Care of The Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: 

"Yes, it is true that I crossed the Bering Straits on the ice, 
hut I made the journey alone. I left East Cape, Siberia, in March 
1913 with my sled, its load of fur and food and 16 dogs. It took 
me 2§ days to reach the Big Diomede Island traveling at an angle 
over the moving ice to allow for the northward current. After feed- 
ing and resting the dogs I struck out for Little Diomede' Island 
which is close by and easily made over the ice, as the ice between 
the two islands is grounded. 

"At Little Diomede Island a white man by the name of Bill 
Shroeder who had been stopping at the village during the winter, 
asked to go along with me as he wished to get to Nome early in 
the year. He followed me on snowshoes. When we were 25 miles out 
on the traveling floes, Shroeder fell through. As the temperature 
was around 20 degrees below zero I wrapped him up in the sled and 
took him back to Little Diomede Island, where he afterward died. 


"I again struck out for Cape Prince of Wales which is only 
24 miles on a straight line from Little Diomede Island, but 6| days 
later I finally got ashore at Shishmaref, which is 75 miles up the 
coast from Cape Prince of Wales. I estimated that during this period 
I traveled about 200 miles, always heading back southward after being 
forced north by the fast-moving ice. After resting myself and my 
dogs for several days I left Shishmaref for Nome, 225 miles away by 
the coast winter trails 

"The ice conditions are the same on both sides of the Islands, 
the floes being more or less scattered and the current northwester- 
ly. Young ice is constantly forming in Jbhe open leads, about 4-g 
inches thick. It was in one of these spots that Schroeder went 
through. I could cross these places with my sled and dogs - that 
is to say some of them - whenever I could find one thick enough to 
get to the big floe in the direction of the U. S. Coastline. Al- 
together it was a perilous trip and I do not think I would do it 
again. But then I am older now and that may be the reason. 

Yours truly, 

Cap tain Max Go tts chalk." 

Author ' s Note ; 

Prom acquaintances of many years' standing, we learn that Mr. 
Max Gottschalk, sometimes also called "Mike" Gottschalk, has lived 
in Nome for some twenty years. He is captain of a trading and 
freighting schooner which plies between Nome and nearby points. Be- 
cause of his long experience in the region as navigator and as 
trader with natives and with whites, and because of his familiarity 
with the Russian and Eskimo languages, he is peculiarly qualified 
to speak with authority on conditions in the Bering Strait. 


John Frost, Crow Indian, died at the Government Hospital 
at Crow Agency, Montana, after a long career as cowboy, deputy 
sheriff, U. S. Indian Service employee, Indian Scout for the U. S. 
Army, and, for many years, as Baptist pastor to his people. The 
Board of Managers of the Baptist Home Missionary Society has gone 
on record in expressing appreciation of his life and work. 



The annual report of the Secretary of the Interior for 
the fiscal year 1937, in which is contained the report of the Of- 
fice of Indian Affairs, is now available and may be purchased from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wa- 
shington, D. C for fifty cents. 

A few highlights from the report follow: 

Indian Population Shows Increase 

The Indian population of the United States has been in- 
creasing at a rate exceeding one per cent per year for the last 
seven years. This increase has not been accompanied by a corre- 
sponding increase in the land and other resources upon which the 
Indian population depends for its livelihood. Thus the work of 
the Interior Department in improving the health of the Indians 
and obtaining for them their share of emergency relief work em- 
phasizes the need of getting more land and developing the resources 
they already have. When emergency relief work stops, the problem 
will become even more acute. 

The Commissioner reports that between 1933 and 19 36 the 
Indian death rate decreased from 15.5 to 13.7 per cent per thous- 
and of population. This death rate is still 2.2 per cent more per 
thousand than among the general population. As recently as 1920 
the Indian death rate was double that of the general population. 
The Indian birth rate - 22.3 per cent per thousand - while declin- 
ing very slowly, is still among the highest of any of the popula- 
tion groups in the country. 

Indian Land Need Is Urgent 

In 1933, according to the report, the Indian population 
as a whole was under-supplied with land and other resources. Ap- 
proximately two-thirds of the Indians were either landless, or 
possessed land in quantities or in a condition which would not 
supply a livelihood. For more than a generation prior to 1933 In- 
dian resources, especially land, had been dissipated through the 
operation of the General Allotment Act which compelled the break- 
ing-up of tribal lands into individually-owned parcels. Since 


1934 when the Indian Reorganization Act was passed, this dissipa- 
tion of Indian lands has ceased and the process of reac cumulation 
has begun, hut Commissioner Collier expresses doubt whether this 
rate of accumulation is not lagging behind the increase in the In- 
dian population. 

Since 1933 the land available for Indian use has been 
increased by approximately four per cent; during the same period, 
the Indian population incrpased by more than 4.5 per cent. In 
discussing this nroblem, Commissioner Collier writes: "Ufhether, 
quantitatively speaking, the downward economic trend can be really 
reversed depends partly upon getting a. solution of the allotted 
lands problem; partly upon the shift of frozen appropriations out 
of unproductive into economically productive uses; partly also up- 
on getting a more generous allowance for land purchases and for 
agricultural credit than has yet been secured." 

Conservation Of Resources By Indians 

The report points out the astonishing progress made by 
the Indians themselves in the application of the principles of 
conservation to their land and water resources. Because of overuse 
and misuse, the forage-producing capacity of the 40,000,000 acres 
of Indian range land had been cut in half. Since 1933 several In- 
dian tribes have voluntarily made great sacrifices, having dras- 
tically reduced the number of live-stock grazing on their eroding 

On the Navajo Reservation range management practices are 
being introduced with the cooperation of the Soil Conservation 
Service and of the Navajos themselves. On the Uintah Reservation 
in Utah, on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho, on several of the 
reservations in Nevada and on the San Carlos Apache Reservation 
in Arizona, the long period of overgrazing has come to an end. On 
these and other large areas of Indian range land the number of 
cattle and sheep grazing on these lajids has been reduced to the 
grazing capacity. On all of these reservations the necessary re- 
ductions were made with the active cooperation of the Indians who, 
after all, were the original conservationists. 

Progress Under The Indian Reorganization Act 

Economic rehabilitation, as reflected in land purchases 
and credit for productive uses, is only one -ohase of the program 
of Indian regeneration which the Reorganization Act of 1934 makes 
possible. Economic rehabilitation is basic, of course, but no 
economic program would succeed, Commissioner Collier declares, 


unless self-determination, which means management by themselves 
of their own resources, is ma-de feasible for the Indians. Accept- 
ance of the Reorganization Act was in itself an action of will on 
the part of the Indian tribes. 

As to what actually has happened since the law was 
adopted by Congress in June, 1934, the annual report reveals at 
the end of last fiscal year Indians numbering 252,211 have come 
under its terms. This represents 217 tribes or bands, or 68.8 
per cent of the Indian population in the United States, including 
Alaska. Tribes accepting the Act are enabled to write constitu- 
tions and charters of incorporation, documents which state specif- 
ically what powers and responsibilities they may assume in direct- 
ing their own affairs and as incorporated bodies they can engage 
in business in much the same manner as does an incorporated munici- 
pality. As of December 1, constitutions and by-laws have been written 
and adopted by 74 tribes, representing 94,196 Indians; charters of 
incorporation have been ratified by 47 tribes, representing 54,749 
Indians. This is an increase over the figures given in the report, 
which is of June 30, 1937, the end of the fiscal year. 

More Productive Administration Sought 

Other matters of vital importance to the Indians of the 
United States are discussed in the report. In the field of arts 
and crafts, several projects for developing standards of quality 
and opening up of markets are described. This work is one of the 
functions of the Arts and Crafts Board, established in accordance 
with the Act of August 27, 1935. 

In education, further progress is reported in the effort 
to adjust the school program to the needs of the Indian community, 
by recognizing and making use of significant factors in Indian 
life. This new policy in Indian education has made necessary in- 
service training, which is in itself a new departure in Indian ed- 
ucation. Health work - with increased cooperation between state 
boards of health, the Public Health Service, the Children's Bureau 
and the Indian Office; with higher standards for physicians and 
nurses coming into the Service, with more and better hospital fa- 
cilities - has also shown great improvement. 

The report directs attention to several problems which 
as yet remain untouched, or only partly solved. In particular the 
problems of heirship lands, of appropriations frozen in channels 
no longer useful, of the illegal sale of liquor among Indians and 
of the possibility of charging fees for certain services to Indians 
able to pay their own way - in all of these the answers are yet 
to be found. 


By Ten Broeck Williamson 
Soil Conservation Service 

All sheep on the Acoma 
Reservation were gathered and 
dipped for ticks at the dipping 
pens near the village of McCarty 
on September 21 and 22, 1937. 
This tremendous task of dipping 
16,550 sheep in two days was ac- 
complished through the coopera- 
tion of all Acoma. sheep owners, 
working under the direction of 
their head sheet) officer, Santi- 
ago Haweya, and representatives 
of the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice and the New Mexico Sheep San- 
itary Board. 

An arsenic dip was 
tried this year instead of nic- 
otine and similar dips which 
have teen used in the past. Ad- 
vantages of this dip are that it 
may be used at a lower tempera- 
ture, and in hard water. The re- 
sults were entirely successful. 
For the tick dipping, six pounds 
of the powder, mixed with a lit- 
tle water, provided sufficient 
stock for 150 gallons of water 
in the dipping trough. Since 


the dip must be used 
at a temperature of 
between 68 and 70 de- 
grees Fahrenheit, wa- 
ter piped from a near- 
by windmill to three 
400-gallon tanks near 
the dipping trough 
was heated sufficient- 
ly before being run 
into the trough to 
bring the solution to 
the required tempera- 

•Die bands 

of sheep to be dipped were held near the dipping pens. "These 
pens are constructed with a large corral at one end into which 
a new flock was driven as soon as the previous one had been dipped. 
One of the most difficult tasks of the diotdng was to drive the 
sheep into the chutes which lead off on either side of the large 
corral. This was most easily accomplished by leading one sheep, 
preferably one with a bell, into the chute. Once this sheep had 
started, the others followed readily. Two chutes were used to 
enable one to be filled while the other was being emptied as the 
sheep were forced into the dipping trough. While the sheep were 
being held in the chutes, they were tallied and mouthed. The 
tallying was to keep track of individual ownershi-o within the 
band. The mouthing was done to determine which ewes were so old 
as to be unfit for further breeding. 

The sheep which were so marked had tc be removed from 

the reservation. Some 
traded to neighboring 
Pueblos for such com- 
modities as wheat, 
chili, and corn. This 
removal of unproduc- 
tive stock is an es- 
sential phase of the 
range-improvement -oro- 
gram being carried 
out on the A coma 

In a steady 
stream, from the 
chutes where they 

Were killed and eaten, while others were 


were held after being tallied 
and mouthed, the sheep were 
forced by eight or ten husky- 
men to dive into the dipping 
trough. The sides of the ce- 
ment dipping trough taper in- 
ward slightly toward the base. 
It has an average width of 
eighteen inches and is long 
enough so that the sheep re- 
quire about one and one-half 
minutes to swim the length of 
it. This was considered a suf- 
ficient time for the dip to be 
effective against the ticks. 

Along both sides of 
the trough, men with steel crooks 
stood to assist the swimming 
sheep. Those sheep which became 
confused were helped toward the 
end of the trough and those whose 
heads were not completely sub- 
merged as they dove from the 

chute into the dip were soundly 
ducked with the crooks before 
they could emerge at the far end. 

A man was stationed to help 
the tired sheep in climbing the 
runway out of the dipping trough. 
This much-splashed individual was 
replaced with each new band that 
was dipped. 

The dripping sheep 
emerged from the dip into drain- 
age pens. These pens are con- 
structed with cement floors 
which are so sloped as to allow 
the excess dip to return to the 
dripping trough. Since each 
sheep removed approximately one 
gallon of dip in its wool, the 
operations had to be halted at 
about every 1,000 sheep to re- 
plenish the mixture and test it 
for temperature and strength. 


After being held in the draining pens for fifteen minutes, the 
sheep were released into a large corral until the whole hand 
was dipped, at which time they were turned out to graze. Because 
the entire dipping was carefully done, not a single sheep was 
lost . 

An examination of various hands five days after the dip 
showed a few live tick eggs. Five days later, inspection showed 
no live eggs, but a few live ticks. Subsequent examination on 
the fifteenth and twentieth days after the dipping revealed neither 
ticks nor eggs. 

At present the only possibility for reinfestation is 
from ticks which are harbored in vegetation, timber, or old bedding 
grounds. Should the sheep become reinfested, a dipping similar 
to the one described will be held next year. This precaution 
should free the sheep from ticks for several years. 

Note : All the photographs in tne preceding article are used 
through the courtesy of the Soil Conservation Service. 


The photograph shows the Navajo Central Agency as it ap- 
pears looking through Window Rock- 



By Martin Mitchell, Indian Policeman 

Fort Peck Agency, Montana 

My friends, I want you to stop and think a little about 
yourselves and about your future. The way some of the Indians 
are reminds me of an old horse I had. He had been an awfully 
good horse, but he was raised in a barn. When he got to be 20 
years old I retired him. I took him out of the barn and took the 
rope off his neck and shut the barn door. Do you think he quit 
the barn and went out and ate grass? No. He stood at the barn 
door night and day and starved to death, waiting to be fed. 

Now we don't want to be like that old horse. We want 
to be preparing ourselves to make our own way for the time when 
the government won't be helping us any more. 

Now, my friends, I am going to tell you how I made it 
good and how I went in bad. Ever since I was fourteen years old 
I work hard. Them days there were no white men in the country. 
Many days with an old ox team I make sometimes fifty cents a day, 
sometimes a dollar. When Uncle Sam see I try to do something. for 
myself they give me all the work they can find for me. They gave 
me government wood contract, hay contract, mail contract, ditch 
work and every dollar I make I make use of it. I started with an 
old ox team and about eight years I was one of the wealthiest men 
on this reservation. 

I had a big herd of cattle, horses, all kinds of equip- 
ment, chickens, ducks, rabbits, everything. I didn't get no loan; 
I got it by sweating. Nowadays you boys got one hundred times 
better chance to get ahead than I had in my time. 

Here's how I went in bad. My friends they began to come 
to me, tell me their troubles with the superintendent and with 
farmers and with the -oolice and the clerks. I believe them what 
they tell me. I went to Washington couple times fighting the su- 
perintendent, farmers and the policemen. I started to stick my 
nose in everybody else's business and let my own business go all 
to pieces. My friends, if I stayed on and tend to my own business 
like I first started, I think I be wealthy yet. That's why good 
many of us today we ain't got nothing because we try to run some- 
body else's business too much. 


Now, my friends, for last twenty— five years we have done 
nothing here at Fort Peck hut fighting, fighting all the time. 
What we gain on that anyhow? I know what we got for fighting all 
the time; what we got is this - we got the bad reputation and 
that's not very good to be proud about it. 

Let's be wise; let's start a new program. I am going 
to mention four or five programs we should follow and I guarantee 
we get somewhere with it. I am going to tell you the truth. 

Program No. 1 ; Let's cooperate with the superintendent 
and the farmer and the policemen. I will guarantee it we will 
get some place with it. , 

Program No. 2 ; Let's trade some of our dogs off for a 
bunch of chickens. Some of us we go high as ten to fifteen dogs 
in the house. That's too many. If you have that many chickens 
you will have something. 

Program No. 3 : Let's trade our automobiles off for a 
work team. When you buy a car you neglect your home, cut yourself 
short on everything. Wait until you can afford it. - 

Program No. 4 ; Let's cut the booze out and save that 
money to buy us a milk cow. At the rate we spend money on the 
booze it won't take us long to buy us a thoroughbred milk cow, 
probably two or three times that. I want to know if any of you 
can tell me the money you spend on booze does any good. You 
neglect your home, ruin your health, ruin your reputation. Let's 

Program No. 5 ; Let's stay home and tend to our own 
business. Some times I wish this office would burn to the ground 
so that you would have to do more for yourselves. 

9************ * * 


At the Oklahoma Folk Festival, celebrated at Northeast- 
ern Teachers College at Tahlequah, Oklahoma on November 16, Indian 
dances, music and legends were an important feature. This year 
Oklahoma's thirtieth birthday as a state was celebrated and the 
theme of the festival was woven around the contribution of various 
groups to the state's development, in which the Indian played an 
important part. 



5y J. E. White, Credit Agent 

ti:~4 -,-••-? 

The Cattle Grading Corrals Have Just Been Finished. 

Timber Is Scarce At McDermitt, But Willows And Good 

Posts Serve The Purpose. 

In northwestern Nevada, some two hundred and fifty miles 
from Carson Agency, is the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, home 
of a small group of Paiute and Shoshone Indians. This remote group 
has achieved outstanding economic progress during the past thj*ee 

The Fort McDermitt Indians' resources have always been 
meager. When allotments of land were made, many families received 
less than ten acres of arable land each. Although the allottees 
gradually improved their holdings by clearing land for hay fields 
and by building homes, the Indians had to depend for the bulk of 
their living upon ranch and vaquero work for white-owned cattle 
outfits and upon sheep shearing and wood hauling. In 1933 the 
situation at Fort McDermitt was this: there were about 270 Indians 
who owned some 150 head of horses and less than 200 hundred cattle. 
The able-bodied depended on wage work from white stockmen for their 
sup-oort; the, aged and helpless received rations from the government. 
Today these Indians own 1,000 cattle. 

Fort McDermitt Organizes Under I.R.A . 

The Fort McDermitt Indians voted to accent the Indian 
Reorganization Act and adooted a constitution in July 1936 and a 
charter in November 1936. In 1936, by a special act of Congress, 


more than 20,000 acres on the headwaters of the Quinn River were 
set aside for the use of the Indians. In the winters 1934-35 and 
1936-37 the Indians had been fortunate in receiving shipments of 
drought- relief cattle. And on December 15, 1936, the first unit 
of irrigated hay land, 1,554.35 acres, of which 1,000 acres were 
producing hay, was acquired by Indian Reorganization Act purchase. 

One of their first actions as an organized group was to 
seek a loan from the Indian Reorganization Act's revolving loan 
fund and on March 30, 1937, the tribe secured a loan of $21,000, 
of which $3,500 is being used to operate the corporate enterprise 
known as the Giacometto ranch project. 

These things were done for the Port McDermitt Indians. 
The rest they did for themselves. 

Hay Is Harvested On Halves 

The story of the management of this hay enterprise fol- 
lows in brief: 

The council, with the approval of the Suoerintendent, 
Miss Alida C. Bowler, selected a manager who looks after the ranch 
in much the same capacity as a ranch foreman. The manager, who is 
paid a salary, is the custodian of all the property, looks after 
the irrigation work, checks the condition of fences and directs 
the haying operations. 

The hay harvesting is done by the Fort McDermitt cattle- 
men who furnish all horse power, and who cut, rake and stack the 
hay for one-half of the hay tonnage harvested. The grazing after- 
math on the hay land goes to the tribal cattlemen who harvest the 
hay. The other half of the hay is the property of the tribe and 
the proceeds from its sale are used to pay the operating expenses 
of the enterprise and to 
repay the $3,500 loan. 

The first year's 
budget of the enterprise 
showed $1,515 to be spent 
for eauipment, of which the 
largest item was $900 for 
six buck rakes; $720 for the 
manager's salary; $1,000 for 
a reserve fund; and $265 for 
miscellaneous exoenses. 

Twenty Mow Teams Ready To Go 


The 1937 hay operations, •under the direction of the 
manager, Willie Hardin, were carried out with promptness and 
precision. When final measurements were made by Farm Agent Wood- 
ward thirty days after the stacks were finished, 1,070 tons were 
checked, in addition to some 100 tons reserved by previous agree- 
ment for the former ranch owner. 

The $500 due this year on the corporation's $3,500 debt 
is being paid from funds received from this year'3 operations. 
The remaining $3,000 is payable in $1,000 installments in November 
of 1936, 1939 and 1940. 

Ha£. ^1 -H^S. Key Of F ort McDermitt Econo my 

This hay enterorise is an essential -part of the whole 
plan of self-sup-port for the Fort McDermitt Indians. Hay produc- 
tion on the corporate enterprise is estimated at 1,200 tons per 
year, although it varies somewhat with the amount of irrigation 
water delivered from McDermitt Creek and Quinn River. This ton- 
nage of hay is adequate, according to the local customary average 
of one ton per animal per season, for wintering 1,200 head of cattle 
The Fort McDermitt council plans on a balanced cattle economy by 
keeping the number of stock below the maximum carrying caoacity 
of the reservation and thus permitting a reasonable yearly carry- 
over of hay to accumulate as a reserve for short hay-crop seasons, 
and in addition to provide for ample hay sales to meet loan agree- 
ment repayments and to take care of operating expenses. The cat- 
tle increase will be governed entirely by the supply of summer 
grazing and the winter feed available. 

From loan funds granted to individuals, 121 head of 
cattle from the Giacometto ranch were purchased this past fall, 
thus securing to the Indians the grazing privileges previously 
controlled by the former owners in the Humboldt National Forest. 

Improvements In Cattle Industry Sough t 

The long-time program visualized by the McDermitt council- 
men, Superintendent Bowler and the Extension staff orovides not 
only for this corporate hay enterprise, but also for improving the 
quality of live-stock produced by Fort McDermitt Indians and for 
more profitable marketing. Tne old method of selling "by the head" 
is now changing to sale by weight. Under the direction of Exten- 
sion Agent Don C. Foster, a stock and farm scale has been -purchased 
and set up on the Giacometto ranch where all hay, cattle and other 


produce are weighed when sold, thus eliminating all guessing by 
seller and "buyer alike. A cattle grading school conducted by J. 
K. Wallace of the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the super- 
vision of the local Indian Service extension staff this fall 
heightened the desire for the Fort McDermitt Indian cattlemen to 
sell their cattle on a graded basis and in pooled lots. 

Harry Lossing, Chairman of the Fort McDermitt Council, 
made a statement recently which might well be quoted here: 

"I cannot tell you how much the Fort McDermitt Indians 
appreciate the Indian Reorganization Act and the things that our 
superintendent has helped us to do. We are going to do our best 
to see that the corporate enterprise repayments are made on time 
and that the individual loan payments are also made, so that the 
revolving credit funds can be turned back to help other Indians." 


To supplement the preceding story of the Fort McDermitt 
hay enterprise, a word should be said about the Indian women of 
this group, who, whenever they have had anything to make something 
with, have "fallen to" and produced results. The women are hard- 
working and ingenious, making their own and their children's cloth- 
ing and manufacturing buckskin and beaded articles for the Agency's 
cooperative arts and crafts shop. They have become particularly 
skilled at adapting salvaged Army garments and remnants of cotton 
goods furnished them through government surplus supplies. The 
local teacher has described a sewing bee at which thirty-four 
mattresses were made at a women's meeting, including three for 
elderly people who were unable to make them for themselves. Over- 
shoes were made from burlap; quilts and rugs were made from cotton 
and scraps of denim; and warm clothes were pieced together. 


The Indian murals in the Federal Building of Anadarko, 
Oklahoma, which houses the Kiowa Agency and the city post office, 
were dedicated on Sunday, December 5. At the ceremonies held at 
the Riverside School the Kiowa artists were presented - Stephen 
Mopope, who was assisted by Spencer Asah and James Auchiah . There 
were various speakers, among whom were Professor Oscar B. Jacobson 
of the University of Oklahoma and Miss Alice Marriott, field repre- 
sentative of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. 



The first in a proposed series of land exchanges of 
tribal Indian land with state and county-owned land is "being con- 
summated at Pine Ridge in South Dakota. This particular exchange 
is significant because it is the first in a series of adjustments 
which will result in benefits and economies to both Indians and 

This move is a departure from precedent, made possible 
by the Indian Reorganization Act, by the initiative of Francis 
Case, Congressman from South Dakota's second district, and by the 
helpfulness of South Dakota officials, notably Governor Leslie 
Jensen and Ben Strool, State Commissioner of School and Public Lands. 

The first trade now being worked out involves 14,000 
acres in Bennett County. State-owned land in .three northern tiers 
of townships goes to the Federal Government which will relinquish, 
in return, tracts of equal size and value in two southern tiers of 

When the Sioux reservations, formerly solid areas of 
tribal land, were broken up by allotment to individual Indians 
beginning in the 'eighties, the land remaining after allotment was 
opened to white settlers. The state also took certain sections 
under school land grants. Now, fifty years later, a colored map 
of South Dakota's Indian country looks like a patchwork quilt, 
with Indian allotments, white-owned farms and state lands forming 
the pattern. 

State school lands, which are mostly rented to whites, 
are in many cases surrounded by Indian allotments and much of the 
land held in trust for Indians is surrounded by white owners. Ad- 
ministration has been costly and there have been instances of 
mutual trespassing by both Indian and white stock owners. 

Both the State and the Indian Service have sought to ease 
the difficult situation. Until recently, exchanges to straighten 
out the tangle were not feasible because tribal lands had been lost 
to the Indians and only individually-owned Indian land remained. 
The Indian Reorganization Act, passed in 1934, plus recent legisla- 
tion passed by the South Dakota Legislature, provided the key. One 
of the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act made possible 
the return to Indian use all former reservation land which had been 


opened to settlement and entry, and which, not having been settled, 
had been withdrawn by the Government. Nine thousand acres were re- 
stored at Pine Ridge under this provision in 1936 and a number of 
additional restorations, including land at Rosebud Agency and at 
Standing Rock Agency are pending. 

Through the initiative of Francis Case, who had been 
vitally interested in effecting the exchanges, enabling legisla- 
tion was -oassed at the last session of the South Dakota Legisla- 
ture authorizing exchanges of state-owned school lands with these 
restored tribal lands. The whole problem was discussed at a 
meeting between state officials and local Indian Service officials 
in Pierre in August and the proposed trades at Pine Ridge were 
mapped out. 

In September the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council wrote to 
Commissioner Collier and endorsed the proposed exchange which 
would help to consolidate and protect their scattered holdings. 
With all parties to the exchanges eager for final settlement, only 
the formalities of legal transfer remain. 


Dr. Carl V. Rasmuasen and Nurses 

Magda Hanson and Martha E. Lee 

View Of The New Hosoital 
At Western Shoshone 

The new hospital at Western Shoshone Agency at Owyhee, 
Nevada, is now open and serving the Shoshone-Paiute Tribe. More than 
three hundred Indians visited the hospital and were shown through the 
building on the opening day by the Agency physician, Dr. Carl V. Ras- 
mussen and by Nurses Magda Hanson and Martha Elizabeth Lee. 


By Robert Yellowtail, Superintendent, Crow Agency, Montana 

The Crow Indians occupy what was once a superb game coun- 
try. Lewis and Clark on their trip to the Coast in 1803 in their 
memoirs declared that on the Yellowstone, buffalo and elk herds were 
so thick that their progress was often halted in order to permit an 
endless herd of these range monarchs to pass. They also described 
the streams of the Crow country as teeming with all kinds of water 
life - beaver, martin and fish. 

The advent of the fur and hide hunters, traders and tran- 
pers had ell but exterminated these lavish gifts of nature when, by 
the timely rescue efforts of the administration, a restocking pro- 
gram of all species of wild life was begun. Buffalo, deer, elk, 
bear and native mountain trout have been replaced on the Crow Reser- 
vation: at this time there are between three and four hundred buf- 
falo, about 1,000 elk, 500 deer and numerous beaver in all the creeks. 
Over 500,000 trout were planted in the Crow streams last year. Black, 
brown and grizzly bear inhabit the wild regions. 

The control of wild life is in the hands of the Crow Trib- 
al Council. The Council passed a three-year moratorium on hunting 
and as a result, game of all soecies increased in large numbers. It 
is now a common sight to see large herds of buffalo, deer and elk 
along the roadside grazing peacefully. It is possible that our herd 
of buffalo will soon be the largest in the United States, as condi- 
tions for their life in the bison range on Crow are much better than 
in the Yellowstone Park on account of our ample forage and the pro- 
tection from severe weather given by the deep canyons. 

Our objectives in this wild life program have been three: 
First, to preserve these magnificent species of our animal friends; 
second, to develop a potential meat supply for emergencies; and 
third, to satisfy the, aesthetic feeling for wild life which is still 
strong among the Crows. Buffalo and elk constituted their entire 
sustenance in the pre -reservation days and their reverence for these 
animals is very much alive today. It costs the Crows little or no- 
thing to maintain this large herd and it is a source of great pride 
and satisfaction to them. 



By George D. Bixby, Associate Forester 

The use of heavy e- 
quipment on CCC - ID projects 
does not necessarily mean the 
cutting down of man power. On 
the contrary, hy acquiring and 
using certain items of equip- 
ment, additional employment is 
provided for Indian workers. 
The use of sand and gravel wash- 
ing plants along with concrete 
mixers illustrates this point. 

Satisfactory concrete 
aggregate, that is, sand and 
gravel, cannot he obtained in 
large quantities on most reser- 
vations because of dirt in the 
mixture or unsatisfactory grad- 
ing. In the past, it has often been necessary to purchase sand and 
gravel from private sources. To obviate such purchases, two sa"hd 
and gravel washing plants, similar to that shown in picture No. 2, 
have been secured. These machines are stock-piling enough clean 
sand and gravel on a reservation to last for many months; then they 
can be moved to the next reservation. 

No. 1. Small Amounts Of Concrete 

Are Mixed By Hand When The Job Is 

Isolated. Tet The Aggregate Is 

Carefully Measured. It Is Also 

Heated In Cold Weather. 

The plants are so constructed that dirty aggregate can be 
fed onto an endless belt to be carried into a washer where it is 
separated into sand and two sizes of gravel. Any larger pieces of 
rock are carried to a crusher mounted on one end to the r>lant, where 
they can be broken up and mechanically returned to the screen for 

The larger CCC dams require reinforced concrete spillways 
in order that floods may pass by without harming the structure. The 
accompanying pictures illustrate that a large number of men are 
needed to supplement the machinery in order to produce finished con- 
crete work. Concrete jobs involving only a few cubic yards of ma- 
terial can be completed by hand labor provided extreme care is used. 
Larger projects require clean aggregate and water, mixing and tamping 
machinery, well-braced form work and reinforcing rods. 




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No. 10. A Section Of Completed 

Spillway With More Men Excavating 

For The Next Section. 

No. 11. Comoleted Dam And 
Spillway: Whitehorse Dam, Located 
On The Cheyenne River Reservation. 

(From the report of a Washington Office staff member) 

"The women's club (Yankton Reservation, Rosebud Agency, 
South Dakota) is comprised of about one hundred women with an. 
average attendance of thirty. They are more community-minded than 
any group I have met elsewhere. They are very good needlewomen 
and specialize in the making of 'star' quilts (selling for ten 
dollars each), for which they have developed an almost steady 
market; their membership also includes a few fine bead and skin 
workers. I saw a rush order for a quilt on the frames, due in 
Pennsylvania in ten days; also an order for a full buckskin suit 
and headgear to be sent to a twelve-year-old lad in England, with 
definite prospects of reorders, if satisfactory. With the proceeds 
of their sales, these women have paid for the eye examinations of 
all members who are in need of glasses and for the glasses when 

"In addition, they have done much needed charity work 
and always seek to respond to every request for help. This group 
would be a fine nucleus for further developing work among Yankton 
women, and with reason, for they represent the intelligence, in- 
terest and industry of the whole body of women. I talked with 
many who are enthusiastic over the pros-pects of developing women's 
projects. Within ten days, due to the constant travel through the 
reservation, more than sixty dollars' worth of bead-work has been 
sold ... They are confident that a market for well-cut, well-planned 
articles is now available and capable of much expansion." 



Can Indian enrollees absorb training on the job and at 
the same time maintain good standards of quality and amount of pro- 
duction? They can and they have. Back in 1933 there was a certain 
employee, trained in the hard school of unit costs, miles of road 
finished and yards of earth moved, who exclaimed, when he heard that 
enrollees should he taught as well as worked: "EducationJ I 've 
got a job to do J" That attitude may have been fairly widespread 
at the "beginning of things; if it was, it has been dispelled by the 
impressive record of four years of physical output and of gains in 
the ability of Indian workers. 

The question of training on the job raises, of course, 
the broader one: Of what value is CCC - ID to the individual? In 
the deeper sense, the question cannot be answered at all. The value 
to the individual of an enlarged viewpoint, in character building, 
in increased aptitude for work, and in the discovery and exploiting 
of latent capacities - these inner considerations, within a man's 
mind and heart, are hard matters for statisticians to evaluate. 

But specifically and individually, the question can be 
answered in part. There is accumulating a body of data showing 
that a growing number of Indian CCC workers have made definite. gains 
through their CCC - ID experience. The following extract from an 
agency report gives illustrations. This particular report is quoted 
not because the record could not be matched elsewhere but because 
of its timeliness and brevity, and because the writer happens to 
know something of the friendliness and effort that have been gener- 
ously expended upon the Indians' behalf by hard-working employees 
"with jobs to do" - as part of their jobs.' 

The following is from a report from Rosebud Agency, South 

1. Under the leadership and training of Andy Bell, car- 
penter and skilled laborer, four enrollees have developed into 
skilled carpenters. 

2. Of the ten enrollee machine operators now working at 
Rosebud, nine have become qualified operators as a result of CCC - 
ID training on the job. 

3. Lloyd Houkase, who had had high school education, 
started as an enrollee. He is now Assistant to the Technician and 

is doing general surveying of dams under the direction of an engineer 


4. Wilson Emery, who started in as an enrollee is now 
Trail Lo cater. 

5. Louis Dubray went from enrollee to rodman and is now 
doing general surveying with an instrument and taking topography. 

6. J. Colome who began as an enrollee last May is now 
doing general surveying under the supervision of an engineer. 

7. Rennie Waugh started as an enrollee, and, after two 
years of work with engineers, learning general surveying, is now 
serving as Assistant lb reman. 

8. Jeff Burnett "began as an enrollee; he is Assistant 


9. Bill Barnette, who began as an enrollee, is also now 
Assistant Foreman. 

10. Allan Fredericks has developed from an enrollee to 
a qualified mechanic. 

fire guard. 

11. Bob Rogers, formerly a CCC - ID enrollee, is now a 

12. Alec Larvie and George Brave Boy, who began as en- 
rollees, have worked up to Rodent Control Foremen positions. 


By Elisabeth Hart, Hom^ extension Agent - Pima Agency, Arizona 

4-H Clubs have grown from 
two clubs with 23 members in 1934 to 
19 clubs with over 200 members in 1937, 
with still other clubs forming. Work 
has included making clothing, garden- 
ing and yard improvement, and caring 
for calves, poultry and pigs. 

Note: The picture to the 
right shows the Gila Crossing 4-H Gar- 
den Club members working on their prac- 
tice garden which furnished fresh vege- 
tables to the school. These boys will 
know how to grow a garden at home be- 
cause they have had actual experience 
in gardening under the supervision of 
an expert leader. 


y >:,.- 




By Erik W. Allstroin - Camp Superintendent, CCC - ID 
Phoenix, Arizona 





Apache Timekeeper 

Apache Operator At 
His Air Compressor 

The general statement is made often that Indians hold a 
large number of the skilled CCC jobs. At Fort Apache there is spe- 
cific evidence of how this condition has been and is being accom- 

Beginning in 1933, foremen were instructed to give Indians 
opportunity to learn how to handle equipment. Apache enrollees were 
used as helpers, working with truck drivers, with jackhammer opera- 
tors, caterpillar tractors, with blasters and even on "bulldozers", 
probably the most difficult and dangerous of all road building ma- 

The accompanying pictures show some of our Apaches work- 
ing in skilled jobs. They show too some of our jobs at Fort Apache: 
truck trail and road building; building an emergency landing field 
for airplanes - used last spring when the -search for the airliner 
which crashed oh Baldy was on; and on various conservation and land 
improvement enterprises. Some of the most important work has been 
on the prehistoric ruin at Einishba, which has been described in 
previous issues of "Indians At Work." 

Apache Crew Clearing Airplane Landing Field 


By Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Supervisor 

Indian CCC enroll ees like 
to read, and those in charge of camp 
leisure-time activities are working 
to see that interesting and worth- 
while reading matter is available . 

The leisure-time programs 
in most areas include both class 
studies and individual reading for 
pleasure and information. Build- 
ing up library facilities has been 
a challenging task. 

At Window Rock, Arizona, 
the local Boy Scout troop gathered 
magazines for the use of Navajo en- 

At the writer's suggestion, 
Camp Supervisor Forrest M. Parser 
of Phoenix visited the textbook 
depository at the local Board of 
Education. The result was 1,817 
volumes, reference books, histories, 
books on science and discontinued 
textbooks. This last-mentioned group provides some excellent 
sources for review and study, particularly for Indians who are 
learning to read and write. These books are being placed in the 
Apache, Papago and Navajo CCC camps. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. John Milne, Superintendent 
of Schools at Albuquerque, New Mexico, Camp Superintendent Erik 
All strom has been able to secure 250 volumes of story-books and 
reference texts from the depositories at four public schools. Su- 
perintendent Milne has instructed his school principals to make a 
point of selecting available books and magazines and hold them for 
Indian CCC camps. The photograph above shows these books as they 
were being unloaded from Mr. Allstrom's car. They are being dis- 
tributed to Mescalero, Navajo and the Apache country. Additional 
library material is being secured from both public and private 

Story-Books And Text- 
Books From Albuqueraue 
Public Schools 


sources. We are collecting pamphlets and bulletins on scientific 
subjects and these are being supplemented by government publica- 
tions and bulletins issued through various public agencies. Daily 
newspapers and weekly magazines are being supplied to all camps. 

through these avenues our Indian enrollees are being 
encouraged to read and to keep abreast of scientific and social 
problems. Incentive for reading is further promoted by discussion 
groups and by visual education. 


As a move to protect both the buying public and Navajo 
weavers, Secretary Ickes recently approved regulations which pro- 
vide for tne use of trade-marks of authenticity for Navajo all-wool 
hand-woven fabrics. 

Certificates of authenticity will be fastened to rugs 
and blankets with wire caught in a lead seal. The certificates 
state the weight and size of the fabric and certify that it is 
made entirely of locally hand-spun wool, woven by a member of the 
Navajo Tribe on a traditional Navajo loom. Certificates stating 
the facts can be obtained by anybody dealing in Indian goods. To 
protect the certificates from misuse, however, anyone wishing to 
use them must give $500 bond and obtain a license from the Indian 
Arts and Crafts Board, a government organization which seeks pro- 
tection, better marketing and higher standards for Indian crafts 

Navajo rugs and blankets are the first Indian-made prod- 
ucts to receive this protection because of the economic importance 
of the craft,, whose sales total hundreds of thousands of dollars 
annually. Standards for silver were promulgated many months ago, 
but government stamps of authenticity have not been supplied as 


At an election on November 27, the Bay Mills group of 
Michigan (under Great Lakes Agency, Wisconsin) voted to amend their 
constitution by a vote of 50 to 2; and adopted their charter by a 
vote of 54 to 3. 

On December 7, the Sac and 5b x Indians of Shawnee Agency, 
Oklahoma, voted for adoption of their constitution by a vote of 202 
to 120. There was an exceptionally large turnout: 71 per cent of 
all those eligible to vote. 

39 • 



Kiowa Agency_ Home Exten sion Clubs 








Oakview 12 

Red Stone-25 
Ft. Cobb— 14 
Carnegie— 19 
Rainy Mt.-19 
Saddle Mt.ll 
Mt. Scott-16 
Hobart 14 

Oakview 12 

Red Stone-25 
Ft. Cobb— 20 
Carnegie — 16 
Rainy Mt.-19 
Saddle Kt-12 
Mt. Scott-15 
Hobart— — 14 
-Mt. View- -12 

Oakview 15 

Hed Stone -23 
Ft. Cobb— 30 
Carnegie — 19 
Rainy Mt.-20 
Saddle Mt.18 
Mt. Scott-16 
Hobart-— 19 
Mt. View- -14 
-Walters 23 

Oakview 14 

Red Stone- 26 
Ft. Cobb— 23 
Carnegie— 21 
Rainy Mt.-24 
Saddle Mt.21 
Mt. Scott-14 

Hobart -19 

Teat Car. -18 

Walters — -24 


-Deyo 21 

Oakview 14 

Red Stone-25 
Ft. Cobb- -23 
Carnegie — 21 
Rainy Mt.-24 
Saddle Mt-22 
Mt. Scott-15 

Hobart 15 

West Car. -19 

Walters 24 

Herwauney -21 

Deyo 21 

-Apache 26 

—Hiawatha — 8 

Oakview 14 

Red Stone— 23 
Ft. Cobb-— 30 
Carnegie — -31 
Rainy Mt.--24 
Saddle Mt.-32 
Mt. Scott— 21 

Hobart 23 

West Car. --20 

Walters -24 

Herwauney — 25 

Deyo —30 

ADache 19 

Hiawatha— 19 

-Lawton 22 

-Wichita 30 


Oakview 16 

Red Stone--32 

Ft. Cobb 38 

C&rnegie 38 

Rainy Mt.--31 
Saddle Mt.-32 
Mt. Scott— 21 
Hobart— —23 
West Car. --22 

Whiter s 26 

Herwauney— 25 

Deyo 32 

Apache 22 


Lawton 23 

Wichita 14 










2 3. __ 

24. — 

?5. — ' — 



Total 127 

"Caddo and Delaware 

•Herwauney Club had only two meetings during 1937. 

•Mt. Scott has two clubs - Comanche and Kiowa. 

Mt. View Club changed the name of the club to West Carnegie Club. 

Indiahoma Club has two names - Indlohoma and Post Oak. 

-Fletcher— -11 
-Stecker 17 

-Riverside — 22 
-Scott 21 

Oakview -16 

Red Stone--38 
Ft. Cobb— 14 

Carnegie 35 

Rainy Mt.— 38 
Saddle Mt.-37 
Mt. Scott— 18 
Hobart— — -23 
West Car.— 26 

Walters 25 

Herwauney- -20 

Deyo 30 

Apache— 29 

Mt. Scott— Id 

Lawton 28 

Wichita 19 

Binger- 1? 

Fletcher 26 

Stecker 22 

C & D- 20 

Rivers ide--20 
Scott :21 




Indiahoma 31 

Oakview -18 

Red stone --34 
Ft. Cobb-— 24 

Carnegie 28 

Rainy Mt.— 27 
Saddle Mt.-26 
Mt. Scott— 17 

Hobart 20 

Test Car. — 24 

Walters 18 

Herwauney — 11* 

Deyo 28 

Apache 37 

Mt. Scott— 12' 
Lawton — - — 24 
Wichita— —19 

Binger —13 

Fletcher 25 

Stecker 29 

C & D 20* 

Riverside — 11 

Scott -20 

— Beaver 

--Emerson 15 

--Cedar Dale-18 

--Arts & Crafts 

--Sugar Creekl2 

Indiahoma— 38 


By Henrietta K. Burton, Supervisor Of Home Extension Work 

Joyousness is one of the outstanding elements in the Indian 
Women's Home Extension Club meetings. A steady sustained growth of nine 
years is shown in the rise to 28 clubs with 585 members on the Kiowa jur- 

All the clubs, save one, meet once a month throughout the 
year and many of them call additional or special meetings. Each club is 
organized with a definite group of officers: president, vice-president, 
secretary, treasurer and nroject leaders. The women conduct their own 
meetings and keep their records. The projects for the year are chosen by 
Indian women and combined by the home extension agent into the "Program 
Of Work." Each woman is supplied with a "Year Book" which gives the pro- 
gram for each meeting. 

The Indian women take their club responsibilities seriously. 
They -preside with dignity and earnestness. During the group work hours, 
they believe in having a good time by singing, laughing and joking as 
they work on the auilts, dresses, furniture repair or food work. 



Leisure - Time Activities At 
Mescalero (New Mexico ) Basket Ball 
games have had a part in our leis- 
ure-time activities this week. The 
old stone fireplace in our camp 
recreation hall has just as much to 
do with our evening activities these 
days as the never -forgot ten card 
games and radio entertainment. 
Perfecto Garcia . 

Rodent Control Work Progress- 
ing at Colville ( Washington ) The 
rodent control crew was very active 
last week. The crew is going to 
work as long as the weather permits. 
If the weather changes and freezes, 
the crew will have to quit for the 
season. They have covered 1,640 
acres of gopher-infested farm land 
and their work is a great help and 
a credit to the farmers. They have 
to be especially careful about 
scattering the poison. The project 
was supervised by Roy Toulou. Joe 
Boyd , Camp Clerk . 

Activities At Flathead ( Mon- 
tana ) One evening last week a group 
of camp members visited the camp man- 
ager to discuss various camp matters. 
After these matters were satisfacto- 
rily settled, the meeting was turned 
into a recreational meeting, as the 
majority of those concerned were 
present. One new committeeman and- 
a treasurer were elected. It was 
necessary to fill the vacancy of 
treasurer immediately in order that 
fundf from the social given in the 
camp recreation hall last week might 
be properly cared for. 

The care of recreational prop- 
erty was also taken up and the out- 
come was the election of a property 
man from within the committee. 

A problem of importance for the 
coming dance was the badly torn floor 
in the recreation hall. It was de- 
cided that a new floor was essential. 
So on Thursday the flooring was pur- 
chased, hauled into camp and some of 
the more recreational -minded members 
worked far into the night to lay the 
new floor for the Friday night dance. 
A record crowd attended the dance 
and approximately twenty-five dollars 
was taken in from the sale of the 

Much arranging and cleaning up 
throughout the entire camp has been 
done this week. A very close check- 
up of the entire heating sft-up was 
made and the necessary steps to put 
this in first-class shape will be 
taken immediately. Eugene Malett . 

Weath er Conditions Unfavorable 
At Pierre I ndian School ( South Dako- 
ta ) Weather conditions here have 
been none too favorable. However, 
we have moved along very nicely and 
work on the cottage has progressed 
very well. We have taken several 
samoles from our wells and casings 
and sent them in for purity tests. 
We have had to do a little bank slop- 
ing along Jetty No. 1 and we had 
quite a little rough material that 
we purchased last spring so that 
we will be able to do some riprap- 
ping to protect us just at the point 


where our well is located. This 
well is at the extreme of Jetty 
No. 133-A. .S. J. Wood . 

Interesting Safety Meetings 
Held At Great Lakes ( Wisconsin ) 
Work at this unit has been progress- 
ing satisfactorily. The men show 
much enthusiasm in their work, al- 
though they are sometimes faced 
with difficult weather conditions. 
The weather here is very changeable. 
At times there is a mixture of rain 
and snow which freezes and makes 
traveling and working with the 
trucks very dangerous. It also 
hinders the work a great deal. 

Much enthusiasm has been shown 
in regard to our safety meetings. 
The Safety Committee has found out 
that it has helped a great deal in 
teaching the men to be cautious in 
the field. Meetings have been held 
at the CCC-ID Office every week. 
But due to the fact that we have 
studied every phase of safety, it 
was decided to postpone one of the 
meetings until the following week. 

It was suggested by one com- 
mittee member to allow two or three 
enrollees from both camps to attend 
these meetings and let them have a 
voice in the discussion on safety. 
The men who were asked to attend 
showed a great willingness and some 
had very interesting and worth- 
while suggestions. Herman E. Camer- 
on, Trail Locator. 

Truck Trail Construction At 
Five Civilize d Tribes ( Oklahom a) 
Project #202 -19: It won't be 
long before this nicely constructed 
trail will be finished. The hard 
surface of fine natural gravel is a 
great asset to this truck trail. 

There are a few places where there 
is no gravel but the foreman has 
seen to it that ttiese places are 
well -drained. Floyd B. Chambers . 

Two P onds Completed At Osage 
( Oklahoma ) The weather conditions 
here at the Osage Reservation have 
changed somewhat this week. The 
warmer temperature has made working 
conditions very agreeable. The 
truck drivers are finding it very 
nice to drive as the weather is not 
only nice, but hot air heaters were 
installed in all the transportation 
trucks to insure the safety of the 
men during the cold weather by keep- 
ing the drivers comfortable. 

Two ponds were completed and 
the two pond crews have moved to 
new locations. These crews are do- 
ing very fine work and hope to fin- 
ish their ouota on scheduled time. 
William H. Labodie . 

Activities At Sha wnee ( Oklahoma ) 
The Kickapoo CCC Workers have been 
digging rock all this week, trying 
to get enough to build baffles. It 
has been difficult to secure rock 
at our oresent location due to its 
scarcity, but so far, we have se- 
cured almost enough for our baffles. 
The men are anxious to get started 
on the baffle work as it is both 
educational and interesting. George 
Kishketon . 

Our Camp Supervisor A. B. Finney, 
was here this week. His visit 
created more interest among the 
boys in the Enrollee Program and 
they are ready to give his program 
full supoort. Educational programs 
as well as entertainment, will be 
sponsored by the CCC-ID boys in 
this part of the reservation next 


month. Herbert Franklin , Leader . 

Deer Hunting At Pa lute ( Utah ) 
Most of the men returned to work 
after a successful deer hunt. Near- 
ly every man "brought home a buck. 
The hides will be tanned by the 
women and later made into moccasins 
and gloves. 0. B. Fry . 

Caterpillar Students Enthusias- 
tic About Their Work At Navajo ( Luk- 
achukai ) (A rizona ) Our caterpillar 
students continue to show the same 
fine enthusiasm for their work. The 
students learn to grease and care 
for the equipment so efficiently 
that now very little time is lost 
through care of the caterpillars. 
James A. Sturdevant , Machine Opera- 
tor . 

Fire Hazard Reduction At Con - 
solidated Chippewa ( Minnesota ) Our 
fire hazard reduction work has pro- 
gressed satisfactorily considering 
that the snow in the woods and the 
wet slushy roads have to be tra- 
versed daily by this crew. 

The fills being put in on the 
Grand Portage Stockade Road are 
fast nearing completion. With the 
trucks breaking down and too coarse 
a gravel and numerous other little 
difficulties, it began to look as 
if we were going to have some real 
trouble keeping everything going. 
But by Tuesday noon, the tangles 
were all straightened out and every- 
thing was rolling along like a well- 
oiled machine once again. Leo M. 
Smith . 

Excavation Work On The Kyle 
Dam Progressing At Pine Ridge ( South 
Dakota ) The excavation of the spill- 

way is progressing. Work, however, 
was slowed up a bit this week while 
compaction work was being done on 
the old spillway. Plenty of care 
and skill must be exercised in the 
engineering of this compaction. 

Due to the wet soil in the cut, 
it was a little difficult for the 
teams to move around in there with 
their dump wagons. They have done- 
their share of dirt moving in the 
time they have put in on this work, 
in spite of the small amount of 
space in which they had to move 
around with their dump wagons. 

The machine crew is keeping 
right up to their standard and have 
proven to be a lot of help, both 
in the compaction filling and in 
the excavation of the pilot channel. 

Last Tuesday Mr. Skalander, 
our First-Aid instructor, gave an 
examination at the Kyle School. 
Most of the boys attended, but it 
is not known as yet, how many of 
them made the grade and passed the 
examination. Elmus A. Bullard , 
Sen io r Foreman . 

Horse Trail Construction At 
Northern Idaho (Idaho) We have 
been working on the Webb Reserve 
for the past few days, building 
horse trails. Due to the fact that 
the hills are very steep and rocky, 
the digging has gone along slowly. 
We had to make switchbacks to 
avoid some cliffs of rock and this 
made it a little easier for us to 
grade our trail. James J. Bron - 
cheau . 

One cruising party is working 
on the Tahoe Reserve. G. A. Robertson. 



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